Armando Caligiuri, electrons in motion
Welcome to my site, news and updates from moving electrons. Pages devoted to computer science, software and computer networks
      Home      Electronic    Informatics   Radiofrequency       Who I am         Contacts

                                            Welcome to the page dedicated to the computer science

I will look into this page, as it is in the spirit of this site, to define in simple words and suitable for newcomers the immense world behind the word "computer science" as always is not an easy task but I will also try this case. Of course, it is impossible to condense a vast subject in this small text, but if you are going to deepen or need professional advice (with my experience in the field since 1979) you can contact me via the "Contacts" page.

On this page we will discuss the definition of computer science and hardware of computer systems, for software and computer networks I have prepared separate pages that you can reach by clicking on the links above or below this document.

Computer science is the science that deals with the processing and processing of data, information, physical quantities and services in an automated manner, to do so with electronic systems (computer systems) formed by billions of logical gates, that need digital or numeric signals to function, Have only two states, status 0 or off, and status 1 or on, of course, to acquire and process analogue signals (see page "electronics"), you must first convert them digitally or digitally using an A / D type converter From analog to digital. The converter converts signals with continuous amplitude and frequency variation in a zero sequence and one representing the input signal. At the end of the processing, the digital signals can be converted, if necessary, in analogue by D / A converters, ie digital to analog, which perform the reverse operation, ie they transform a sequence of zero and one (or on-off, or maximum voltage Minimum voltage) in an analog signal corresponding to the digital sequence, for further information press on this link, or you can contact me through the "Contact" page.

Computer science and computer systems have evolved mainly in the field of telecommunications and information, where it almost completely supplanted the traditional systems, thanks to the possibility of data processing, the high immunity to digital signal disturbances and the progress of the digital system, Electronics in miniaturization of circuits and containment of manufacturing costs.
The advancement of electronic circuits has therefore enabled the release of computer science from a strictly professional field, and to enter as a household appliance in every home and office by P.C. Or personal computer, has made it available to anyone with the digital world with its universe of information and opportunities, recently the appearance on the market of battery-powered and touch-sensitive touchscreens such as smartphones and tablets, expanded the range Of available opportunities while allowing for external portability.


                       Personal computer with peripherals                                                                                                                      PC Laptop, or Notebook


                  Smartphone, last generation                                                                                                                                          Tablet, last generation

IT systems are formed by two inseparable elements, hardware and software.

Hardware (translation from English, hard, concrete) can be identified in the logical electronic circuits found within smartphones or tablets. The keyboard, mouse and monitor hardware are part of the hardware.

The software or application (app) is instead the digital information or content that we need to process or use (or allow us to process through the hardware) and that can be stored in a hard drive or in a memory USB or other computer support.
Software is part of the operating systems, which we will deal with on a separate page, and the word processing suite.

As mentioned earlier, computer technology is used for its operation of electronic systems, in the case of the PC, which is the computer system that concerns us most closely, and from which all other data processing and utilization systems Of the contents, the circuitry has now standardized and is simplified with the block diagram shown in the figure.


The CPU (central processing unit) is the commonly called microprocessor component, representing the heart of the PC, processing data in the form of digital signal sequences, and is a very complex LSI (large scale integration) integrated circuit consisting of billions Of Transistor and MOSFET, few have the know-how to build such a component, they are currently only two in the world to have the resources and know how to develop high-level CPU for PC. The CPU to operate utilizes other components, they are:

RAM (random access memory), is directly connected to the CPU, provides quick access and is used to process data
in real time. It is a volatile memory and its contents are lost because it is erased and rewritten continuously during its operation, the amount and quality of the RAM to install depends on the complexity of the data to be processed, as a general rule if it installs as much as possible compatible With system costs and energy consumption.

ROM (read only memory) is a read-only memory, directly connected to the CPU, which is not involved in the digital data process, but serves as a genetic kit for the PC. It stores hardware configuration data, contains BIOS and CMOS, and can not change the content ( no in theory, yes in practice).

The north and south chipsets are the nodes between the CPU, the data storage devices and the outside world, in fact, they connect the universal serial bus (USB) ports to which we can connect now, COM (
Serial port) and the LPT (parallel port), the cd-dvd burner and hard disk drive are connected to the north chipset, and can also contain built-in video conversion unit (video card) Audio processing unit (sound card).

The hard disk is a complex and delicate electromechanical component, it is composed of various plates on which a magnetizable substance is deposited and a continuously flowing head on them, the head writes a sequence of 0 (demagnetized substance) and 1 ( Magnetized substance) corresponding to the data to be stored and stored. Solid hard drives have been created recently (SSDs), which are built using FLASH type memories, writable for a number of cycles, are not very much used because of their high cost compared to traditional hard disks.

The PC also has a certain amount of slots (slot) that allow expandability, that is to add cards that can perform particular functions and thus make the system suitable for specific applications.

Many of the aforementioned components are housed on a main electronic board called a motherboard or  mainboard, which houses virtually any electronic circuitry represented in the block diagram that you can find more on, in addition to the voltage stabilizers for cpu and RAM and the interfacing ports with the outside world.

All is powered by an ATX power supply that provides the various voltages required for the CPU and its components to function, it must be of good quality and must maintain stable and clean voltages, the required values ​​are usually 3 , 3V, 5V and 12V.

The PC itself is connected through the ports connected to the chipset, other devices called peripherals, they are hardware electronic devices that allow you to give commands to the PC (input peripherals) or to use processed data (output peripherals).
The mouse input peripherals. The keyboard and the scanner, on the contrary are output peripherals of the monitor and the printer.
Here are some magnifying images that will allow you to understand what we have said so far.


              Outdated and current data storage components                                                                                 DDR RAM Step 3 Modules in their Slots

                         Cpu mounted on the mainboard with its heatsink                                                                                              CPU view inside with microscope


Mainboard with component identification                                                                                                       Hard disk without lid seen inside

Of course, I repeat that it is impossible to condense in this text all that is to say about computer science, but if you are going to deep or need professional advice, you can contact me through the "Contacts" page.

                                            The software                                 Computer Networks                         Home

Armando Caligiuri, Electronic senior expert, electronic and I.T. maintainer, I.T. consultant.      e-mail:
  Creato e mantenuto da Armando Caligiuri, (C) 2017, V.1.0.0